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ESS Earth and Space Science
- MS-ESS1 Earth’s Place in the Universe
- MS-ESS1-1 Develop and use a model of the earth-sun-moon system to describe the cyclic patterns of lunar phases, eclipses of the sun and moon, and seasons.
- MS-ESS1-2 Develop and use a model to describe the role of gravity in the motions within galaxies and the solar system.
- MS-ESS1-3 Analyze and interpret data to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system.
- MS-ESS1-4 Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence from rock strata for how the geologic time scale is used to organize Earth’s 4.6-billion-year-old history.
- MS-ESS2 Earth’s Systems
- MS-ESS2-1 Develop a model to describe the cycling of Earth’s materials and the flow of energy that drives this process.
- MS-ESS2-2 Construct an explanation based on evidence for how geoscience processes have changed Earth’s surface at varying times and spatial scales.
- MS-ESS2-3 Analyze and interpret data on the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to provide evidence of past plate motions.
- MS-ESS2-4 Develop a model to describe the cycling of water through Earth’s systems driven by energy from the sun and the force of gravity.
- MS-ESS2-5 Use data to provide evidence for how the motions and complex interactions of air masses results in changes in weather conditions.
- MS-ESS2-6 Develop and use a model to describe how unequal heating and rotation of the Earth cause patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation that determine regional climates.
- MS-ESS3 Earth and Human Activity
- MS-ESS3-1 Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how the uneven distributions of Earth’s mineral, energy, and groundwater resources are the result of past and current geoscience processes.
- MS-ESS3-2 Analyze and interpret data on natural hazards to forecast future catastrophic events that necessitate the development of technologies to mitigate their effects.
- MS-ESS3-3 Apply scientific principles to design a method for monitoring and minimizing a human impact on the environment.
- MS-ESS3-4 Construct an argument supported by evidence for how increases in human population and per-capita consumption of natural resources impact Earth’s systems.
- MS-ESS3-5 Investigate factors that have caused changes in global temperatures over time.
LS Life Science
- MS-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
- MS-LS1-1 Conduct an investigation to provide evidence that living things are unicellular or multicellular and may have different cell types.
- MS-LS1-2 Develop and use a model to describe the function of a cell as a whole and ways cell parts (organelles) contribute to the cell functions.
- MS-LS1-3 Use evidence to model how the body is a system of interacting subsystems composed of groups of cells.
- MS-LS1-4 Use evidence and scientific reasoning to support an explanation for how characteristic animal behaviors and specialized plant structures affect the probability of successful reproduction.
- MS-LS1-5 Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how environmental and genetic factors influence the growth of organisms.
- MS-LS1-6 Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for the role of photosynthesis in the cycling of matter and flow of energy into and out of organisms.
- MS-LS1-7 Develop a model to describe how food is rearranged through chemical reactions forming new molecules that support growth and/or release energy as it moves through an organism.
- MS-LS2 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
- MS-LS2-1 Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem.
- MS-LS2-2 Construct an explanation that predicts patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems.
- MS-LS2-3 Develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy among living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem.
- MS-LS2-4 Construct an argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem affect populations.
- MS-LS2-5 Evaluate competing design solutions for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services.
- MS-LS3 Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
- MS-LS3-1 Develop and use a model to describe why structural changes to genes (mutations) located on chromosomes may affect proteins and may result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of the organism.
- MS-LS3-2 Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation.
- MS-LS4 Natural Selection and Adaptations
- MS-LS4-1 Analyze and interpret data for patterns in the fossil record that document the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of life forms throughout the history of life on Earth under the assumption that natural laws operate today as in the past.
- MS-LS4-2 Apply scientific ideas to construct an explanation for the anatomical similarities and differences among modern organisms and between modern and fossil organisms to infer evolutionary relationships.
- MS-LS4-3 Analyze displays of pictorial data to compare patterns of similarities and differences in the embryological development across multiple species to identify relationships not evident in the fully formed anatomy.
- MS-LS4-4 Construct an explanation based on evidence that describes how genetic variations of traits in a population increase some individuals’ probability of surviving and reproducing in a specific environment.
- MS-LS4-5 Gather and synthesize information about the technologies that have changed the way humans influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms.
- MS-LS4-6 Use mathematical representations to support explanations of how natural selection may lead to increases and decreases of specific traits in populations over time.
PS Physical Science
- MS-PS1 Matter and its Interaction
- MS-PS1-1 Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures.
- MS-PS1-2 Analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after an interaction has occurred to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.
- MS-PS1-3 Gather and analyze information to describe that synthetic materials come from natural resources and impact society.
- MS-PS1-4 Develop a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed.
- MS-PS1-5 Develop and use a model to describe how the total number of atoms does not change in a chemical reaction and thus mass is conserved.
- MS-PS1-6 Design a project to construct, test, and modify a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes.
- MS-PS2 Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
- MS-PS2-1 Apply Newton’s Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects.
- MS-PS2-2 Plan an investigation using Newton’s First and Second Laws to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.
- MS-PS2-3 Interpret data to determine the factors that affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces.
- MS-PS2-4 Use evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects.
- MS-PS2-5 Conduct an investigation to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact.
- MS-PS3 Energy
- MS-PS3-1 Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and/or the speed of an object.
- MS-PS3-2 Using a model describe how the different amounts of potential energy in a system changes when the object’s distance changes.
- MS-PS3-3 Apply scientific principles to design, construct, and test a device that either minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer.
- MS-PS3-4 Investigate to determine the relationships among the energy transferred, the type of matter, mass, and change in the average kinetic energy of the particles as measured by the temperature of the sample.
- MS-PS3-5 Construct and present arguments to support the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object.
- MS-PS4 Waves and their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
- MS-PS4-1 Use mathematical representations to describe a simple model for waves that includes how the amplitude of a wave is related to the energy in a wave.
- MS-PS4-2 Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials.
- MS-PS4-3 Evaluate how different forms of technology utilize different signals.
ET Engineering and Technology
- MS-ET1 Engineering & Technology
- MS-ET1-1 Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions.
- MS-ET1-2 Evaluate competing design solutions using systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.
- MS-ET1-3 Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success.
- MS-ET1-4 Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved.