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### 2-4 Number and operations

- 2 The student applies mathematical process standards to represent and compare whole numbers, the relative position and magnitude of whole numbers, and relationships within the numeration system related to place value.
- A recognize instantly the quantity of structured arrangements;
- B use concrete and pictorial models to compose and decompose numbers up to 120 in more than one way as so many hundreds, so many tens, and so many ones;
- C use objects, pictures, and expanded and standard forms to represent numbers up to 120;
- D generate a number that is greater than or less than a given whole number up to 120;
- E use place value to compare whole numbers up to 120 using comparative language;
- F order whole numbers up to 120 using place value and open number lines; and
- G represent the comparison of two numbers to 100 using the symbols >, <, or =.

- 3 The student applies mathematical process standards to develop and use strategies for whole number addition and subtraction computations in order to solve problems.
- A use concrete and pictorial models to determine the sum of a multiple of 10 and a one-digit number in problems up to 99;
- B use objects and pictorial models to solve word problems involving joining, separating, and comparing sets within 20 and unknowns as any one of the terms in the problem such as 2 + 4 = [ ]; 3 + [ ] = 7; and 5 = [ ] – 3;
- C compose 10 with two or more addends with and without concrete objects;
- D apply basic fact strategies to add and subtract within 20, including making 10 and decomposing a number leading to a 10;
- E explain strategies used to solve addition and subtraction problems up to 20 using spoken words, objects, pictorial models, and number sentences; and
- F generate and solve problem situations when given a number sentence involving addition or subtraction of numbers within 20.

- 4 The student applies mathematical process standards to identify coins, their values, and the relationships among them in order to recognize the need for monetary transactions.
- A identify U.S. coins, including pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters, by value and describe the relationships among them;
- B write a number with the cent symbol to describe the value of a coin; and
- C use relationships to count by twos, fives, and tens to determine the value of a collection of pennies, nickels, and/or dimes.

### 5 Algebraic reasoning

- 5 The student applies mathematical process standards to identify and apply number patterns within properties of numbers and operations in order to describe relationships.
- A recite numbers forward and backward from any given number between 1 and 120;
- B skip count by twos, fives, and tens to determine the total number of objects up to 120 in a set;
- C use relationships to determine the number that is 10 more and 10 less than a given number up to 120;
- D represent word problems involving addition and subtraction of whole numbers up to 20 using concrete and pictorial models and number sentences;
- E understand that the equal sign represents a relationship where expressions on each side of the equal sign represent the same value(s);
- F determine the unknown whole number in an addition or subtraction equation when the unknown may be any one of the three or four terms in the equation; and
- G apply properties of operations to add and subtract two or three numbers.

### 6-7 Geometry and measurement

- 6 The student applies mathematical process standards to analyze attributes of two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional solids to develop generalizations about their properties.
- A classify and sort regular and irregular two-dimensional shapes based on attributes using informal geometric language;
- B distinguish between attributes that define a two-dimensional or three-dimensional figure and attributes that do not define the shape;
- C create two-dimensional figures, including circles, triangles, rectangles, and squares, as special rectangles, rhombuses, and hexagons;
- D identify two-dimensional shapes, including circles, triangles, rectangles, and squares, as special rectangles, rhombuses, and hexagons and describe their attributes using formal geometric language;
- E identify three-dimensional solids, including spheres, cones, cylinders, rectangular prisms (including cubes), and triangular prisms, and describe their attributes using formal geometric language;
- F compose two-dimensional shapes by joining two, three, or four figures to produce a target shape in more than one way if possible

- G partition two-dimensional figures into two and four fair shares or equal parts and describe the parts using words; and
- H identify examples and non-examples of halves and fourths.

- 7 The student applies mathematical process standards to select and use units to describe length and time.
- A use measuring tools to measure the length of objects to reinforce the continuous nature of linear measurement;
- B illustrate that the length of an object is the number of same-size units of length that, when laid end-to-end with no gaps or overlaps, reach from one end of the object to the other;
- C measure the same object/distance with units of two different lengths and describe how and why the measurements differ;
- D describe a length to the nearest whole unit using a number and a unit; and
- E tell time to the hour and half hour using analog and digital clocks.

### 8 Data analysis

- 8 The student applies mathematical process standards to organize data to make it useful for interpreting information and solving problems. The student is expected to:
- A collect, sort, and organize data in up to three categories using models/representations such as tally marks or T-charts;
- B use data to create picture and bar-type graphs; and
- C draw conclusions and generate and answer questions using information from picture and bar-type graphs.

### 9 Personal financial literacy

- 9 The student applies mathematical process standards to manage one’s financial resources effectively for lifetime financial security.
- A define money earned as income;
- B identify income as a means of obtaining goods and services, oftentimes making choices between wants and needs;
- C distinguish between spending and saving; and
- D consider charitable giving.