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1-4 Developing and sustaining foundational language skills
- 1 Listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking–oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion.
- A listen actively to interpret a message and ask clarifying questions that build on others’ ideas;
- B follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems;
- C present a critique of a literary work, film, or dramatic production, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, a variety of natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and
- D engage in meaningful discourse and provide and accept constructive feedback from others.
- 2 Listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking–vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively.
- A use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;
- B use context such as contrast or cause and effect to clarify the meaning of words; and
- C determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek and Latin roots such as omni, log/logue, gen, vid/vis, phil, luc, and sens/sent.
- 3 Listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking–fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.
- 4 Listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking–self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.
5 Comprehension skills
- 5 Listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts.
- A establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;
- B generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;
- C make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;
- D create mental images to deepen understanding;
- E make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;
- F make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;
- G evaluate details read to determine key ideas;
- H synthesize information to create new understanding; and
- I monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.
6 Response skills
- 6 Listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed.
- A describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;
- B write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing sources within and across genres;
- C use text evidence to support an appropriate response;
- D paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;
- E interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;
- F respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;
- G discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;
- H respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice; and
- I reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented.
7-8 Multiple genres
- 7 Listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts–literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts.
- A infer multiple themes within and across texts using text evidence;
- B analyze how characters’ qualities influence events and resolution of the conflict;
- C analyze plot elements, including the use of foreshadowing and suspense, to advance the plot; and
- D analyze how the setting influences character and plot development.
- 8 Listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts–genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts.
- A demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, myths, fantasy, and science fiction;
- B analyze the effect of rhyme scheme, meter, and graphical elements such as punctuation and capitalization in poems across a variety of poetic forms;
- C analyze how playwrights develop characters through dialogue and staging;
- D analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational text, including:
- i the controlling idea or thesis with supporting evidence;
- ii features such as references or acknowledgements; and
- iii organizational patterns that support multiple topics, categories, and subcategories;
- E analyze characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:
- i identifying the claim;
- ii explaining how the author uses various types of evidence and consideration of alternatives to support the argument; and
- iii identifying the intended audience or reader; and
- F analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.
9 Author’s purpose and craft
- 9 Listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors’ choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author’s craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances.
- A explain the author’s purpose and message within a text;
- B analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author’s purpose;
- C analyze the author’s use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;
- D describe how the author’s use of figurative language such as metaphor and personification achieves specific purposes;
- E identify the use of literary devices, including subjective and objective point of view;
- F analyze how the author’s use of language contributes to mood, voice, and tone; and
- G explain the purpose of rhetorical devices such as direct address and rhetorical questions and logical fallacies such as loaded language and sweeping generalizations.
- 10 Listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts–writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions.
- A plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;
- B develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:
- i organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and
- ii developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts, details, and examples;
- C revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;
- D edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:
- i complete complex sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;
- ii consistent, appropriate use of verb tenses;
- iii conjunctive adverbs;
- iv prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;
- v pronoun-antecedent agreement;
- vi subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences and correlative conjunctions such as either/or and neither/nor;
- vii correct capitalization;
- viii punctuation, including commas to set off words, phrases, clauses, and semicolons; and
- ix correct spelling, including commonly confused terms such as its/it’s, affect/effect, there/their/they’re, and to/two/too; and
- E publish written work for appropriate audiences.
- 11 Listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts–genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful.
- A compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;
- B compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement and genre characteristics and craft;
- C compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and
- D compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.
12 Inquiry and research
- 12 Listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes.
- A generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;
- B develop and revise a plan;
- C refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;
- D identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;
- E differentiate between primary and secondary sources;
- F synthesize information from a variety of sources;
- G differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;
- H examine sources for:
- i reliability, credibility, and bias; and
- ii faulty reasoning such as hyperbole, emotional appeals, and stereotype;
- I display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and
- J use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.