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1 Use Science Process and Thinking Skills
- a Observe objects, events and patterns and record both qualitative and quantitative information.
- b Use comparisons to help understand observations and phenomena.
- c Evaluate, sort, and sequence data according to given criteria.
- d Select and use appropriate technological instruments to collect and analyze data.
- e Plan and conduct experiments in which students may:
- Identify a problem.
- Formulate research questions and hypotheses.
- Predict results of investigations based upon prior data.
- Identify variables and describe the relationships between them.
- Plan procedures to control independent variables.
- Collect data on the dependent variable(s).
- Select the appropriate format (e.g., graph, chart, diagram) and use it to summarize the data obtained.
- Analyze data, check it for accuracy and construct reasonable conclusions.
- Prepare written and oral reports of investigations.
- f Distinguish between factual statements and inferences.
- g Develop and use classification systems.
- h Construct models, simulations and metaphors to describe and explain natural phenomena.
- i Use mathematics as a precise method for showing relationships.
- j Form alternative hypotheses to explain a problem.
2 Manifest Scientific Attitudes and Interests
- a Voluntarily read and study books and other materials about science.
- b Raise questions about objects, events and processes that can be answered through scientific investigation.
- c Maintain an open and questioning mind toward ideas and alternative points of view.
- d Accept responsibility for actively helping to resolve social, ethical and ecological problems related to science and technology.
- e Evaluate scientifically related claims against available evidence.
- f Reject pseudoscience as a source of scientific knowledge.
3 Demonstrate Understanding of Science Concepts, Principles and Systems
- a Know and explain science information specified for the subject being studied.
- b Distinguish between examples and non-examples of concepts that have been taught.
- c Apply principles and concepts of science to explain various phenomena.
- d Solve problems by applying science principles and procedures.
4 Communicate Effectively Using Science Language and Reasoning
- a Provide relevant data to support their inferences and conclusions.
- b Use precise scientific language in oral and written communication.
- c Use proper English in oral and written reports.
- d Use reference sources to obtain information and cite the sources.
- e Use mathematical language and reasoning to communicate information.
5 Demonstrate Awareness of Social and Historical Aspects of Science
- a Cite examples of how science affects human life.
- b Give instances of how technological advances have influenced the progress of science and how science has influenced advances in technology.
- c Understand the cumulative nature of scientific knowledge.
- d Recognize contributions to science knowledge that have been made by both women and men.
6 Demonstrate Understanding of the Nature of Science
- a Science is a way of knowing that is used by many people, not just scientists.
- b Understand that science investigations use a variety of methods and do not always use the same set of procedures; understand that there is not just one “scientific method.”
- c Science findings are based upon evidence.
- d Understand that science conclusions are tentative and therefore never final. Understandings based upon these conclusions are subject to revision in light of new evidence.
- e Understand that scientific conclusions are based on the assumption that natural laws operate today as they did in the past and that they will continue to do so in the future.
- f Understand the use of the term “theory” in science, and that the scientific community validates each theory before it is accepted. If new evidence is discovered that the theory does not accommodate, the theory is generally modified in light of this new evidence.
- g Understand that various disciplines of science are interrelated and share common rules of evidence to explain phenomena in the natural world.
- h Understand that scientific inquiry is characterized by a common set of values that include logical thinking, precision, open-mindedness, objectivity, skepticism, replicability of results and honest and ethical reporting of findings. These values function as criteria in distinguishing between science and non-science.
- i Understand that science and technology may raise ethical issues for which science, by itself, does not provide solutions.