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8.1 Matter and Energy Interact in the Physical World
- 8.1.1 Develop a model to describe the scale and proportion of atoms and molecules.
- 8.1.2 Obtain information about various properties of matter, evaluatehow different materials’ properties allow them to be used for particular functions in society, and communicate your findings.
- 8.1.3 Plan and conduct an investigation and then analyze and interpretthe data to identify patterns in changes in a substance’s properties to determine whether a chemical reaction has occurred.
- 8.1.4 Obtain and evaluate information to describe how synthetic materialscome from natural resources, what their functions are, and how society uses these new materials.
- 8.1.5 Develop a model that uses computational thinking to illustrate causeand effect relationships in particle motion, temperature, density, and state of a pure substance when heat energy is added or removed.
- 8.1.6 Develop a model to describe how the total number of atoms doesnot change in a chemical reaction, indicating that matter is conserved.
- 8.1.7 Design, construct, and test a device that can affect the rate of a phase change.
8.2 Energy is Stored and Transferred in Physical Systems
- 8.2.1 Use computational thinking to analyze data about the relationship between the mass and speed of objects and the relative amount of kinetic energy of the objects.
- 8.2.2 Ask questions about how the amount of potential energy varies as distance within the system changes.
- 8.2.3 Engage in argument to identify the strongest evidence that supports the claim that the kinetic energy of an object changes as energy is transferred to or from the object.
- 8.2.4 Use computational thinking to describe a simple model for waves that shows the pattern of wave amplitude being related to wave energy.
- 8.2.5 Develop and use a model to describe the structure of waves and how they are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials.
- 8.2.6 Obtain and evaluate information to communicate the claim that the structure of digital signals are a more reliable way to store or transmit information than analog signals.
8.3 Life Systems Store and Transfer Matter and Energy
- 8.3.1 Plan and conduct an investigation and use the evidence to constructan explanation of how photosynthetic organisms use energy to transform matter.
- 8.3.2 Develop a model to describe how food is changed through chemical reactions to form new molecules that support growth and/or release energy as matter cycles through an organism.
- 8.3.3 Ask questions to obtain, evaluate, and communicate informationabout how changes to an ecosystem affect the stability of cycling matter and the flow of energy among living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem.
8.4 Interactions with Natural Systems and Resources
- 8.4.1 Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence that shows that the uneven distribution of Earth’s mineral, energy, and groundwater resources is caused by geological processes.
- 8.4.2 Engage in argument supported by evidence about the effect of per-capita consumption of natural resources on Earth’s systems.
- 8.4.3 Design a solution to monitor or mitigate the potential effects of the use of natural resources.
- 8.4.4 Analyze and interpret data on the factors that change global temperatures and their effects on regional climates.
- 8.4.5 Analyze and interpret patterns of the occurrence of natural hazards to forecast future catastrophic events, and investigate how data are used to develop technologies to mitigate their effects.